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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Caves Bibliography

© 2005 by John and Susy Pint

Help us make this list grow. Please send us your corrections and additions!

UPDATED December  2, 2013

Abderrahman, W. A., Dabbagh, A.E., Edgell, H. S., and Shahlam, A. B. (1988):
 Evaluation of Groundwater Resources in Aquifer Systems of Three Regions in Saudi Arabia, Sixth IWRA World Water Congress on Water Resources, pp. 1-11, Ottawa.

Abdul Razzak, M.J., Sorman, A.U. & Al-Hames, A.S. (1989):

Water balance approach under extreme arid conditions - Case study of Tabalah-basin, Saudi Arabia. Hydrological Processes, 3: 107-122.

Abdullah, M. & Alam, S.A. (1987):

Karstphenomena Project. Karst Geomorphology of the Shawia and Ma'aqla Area. Map 1 : 50,000, Dhahran.

Abul-Haggag, A., (1965):

A Recent karstic phenomenon in the limestone country of north central Najd, Saudi Arabia: Bulletin de la Société de Géographie d’Egypte, v. 38, p. 73-80.

Al-Mustafa, H., Al-Jarallah, M.I., Ur-Rehman, F., Abu-Jarad, F. (2005):

Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia. Radiation Measurements Volume 40, Issues 2-6 , November 2005, Pages 707-710

Al-Saafin, A.K., Bader, T.A., Hötzl, H., Shehata, W., Wohnlich S. & Zötl (1990):

Groundwater Recharge in an Arid Karst Area in Saudi Arabia. Selected Papers on Hydrogeology, 1, Hannover (Heise): 29-41

Al-Saafin, A.K., Bader, T.A., Shehata, W., Hoetzl, H., Wohnlich, S., Zoetl, J.G. (1989):

Groundwater Recharge in an Arid Karst Area in Saudi Arabia, Selected Papers on Hydrogeology from the 28th International Geological Congress, Washington, D.C. USA: 29-41

Al-Sayari, S.S. & Zötl, J.G. (Eds., 1978):

Quaternary Period in Saudi Arabia. 1: Sedimentological, Hydrogeological, Hydrochemical, Geomorphological and Climatological Investigations in Central and Eastern Saudi Arabia - XI, 335 S., Vienna/New York (Springer).

Al-Shanti, M.A., Pint, J.J., Al-Juaid, A.J., and  Al-Amoudi, S.A., (2003)

Preliminary survey for caves in the Habakah region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2003-3, 32 p., 43 figs.

Al-Shanti, Mahmoud Ahmed (2013):

ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF CAVES AND ACCOMPANYING PHENOMENA IN THE SEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN SOME AREAS NORTH OF THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

 A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree  Of MASTER OF SCIENCE In GEOLOGY By MAHMOUD AHMED ALSHANTI
 B.Sc. (Geology), Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt, 2013

Baciewicz, W., Millner, D.M & Noori, M., (1982):

Hydrogeology of the Umm er Radhmuma Aquifer, Saudi Arabia with reference to fossil gradients - Q.J. Eng. -Geol., 15, London: 105-126

Bauer, K. (1988):

Noteworthy Mammal records from the Summan Plateau / NE Saudi Arabia, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 90 B: 43-50

Bayer, H.J., Hötzl, H., Jado, A.R., Roscher, B. & Voggenreiter, W.:

Sedimentary and structural evolgution of the northwest Arabian Sea margin. - Tectonophysics, 153: 137-151.

Benischke, R., Fuchs, G. & Weissensteiner, V. (1986):

Karst phenomena of the Arabian Shelf Platform and their Influence on Underground Aquifers. First Report. Speleological Investigations in the Shawyah-Ma'aqla Region, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, 57 pp, 34 figs., 3 tables, 5 maps, Graz.

Benischke, R., Fuchs, G. & Weissensteiner, V. (1987):

Speläologische Untersuchungen in Saudi-Arabien (Eastern Province, As-Summan-Plateau, Region Ma'aqla), Die Höhle, 38 (3): 61-76, 8 figs., 1 map, Vienna.

 

Benischke, R., Fuchs, G. & Weissensteiner, V. (1988):

Karst phenomena of the Arabian Shelf Platform and their Influence on Underground Aquifers. Second Report. Speleological Investigations in the Shawyah-Ma'aqla Region, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, Vol. I, 109 pp, 24 figs.; Vol. II, 17 pp., 52 figs., 15 maps, Graz.

 

Benischke, R., Fuchs, G. & Weissensteiner, V. (1989):

Karst phenomena of the Arabian Shelf Platform and their Influence on Underground Aquifers. Third Report. Speleological Investigations in the Shawyah-Ma'aqla Region, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, Vol. I, 59 pp, 7 figs.; Vol. II, 6 pp., 16 figs., 15 maps, Graz.

Benischke, R., Fuchs, G. & Weissensteiner, V. (1991):

Karst phenomena of the Arabian Shelf Platform and their Influence on Underground Aquifers. Fourth Report. Speleological Investigations in the Shawyah-Ma'aqla Region, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, Vol. I, 70 pp, 1 fig.; Vol. II, 14 maps, Graz.

Contact: ralf.benischke@joanneum.ac.at

Benischke, R., Fuchs, G., Weissensteiner, V. (1997):

Speleological Investigations in Saudi Arabia, Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Speleology, 1997, Switzerland - Vol I: 425-428

Contact: ralf.benischke@joanneum.ac.at

Bibby, T.G. (1973):

Preliminary Survey in East Arabia 1968. Reports of the Danish Archaeological Expedition to the Arabian Gulf, Vol 2 - Jutland Archaeolog. Soc. Publ., Vol XII, Copenhagen (Gyldendal), 55-57.

Bjurström, Erik (1997):

Diving in the Desert, Aramco World,  July/August 1997, Vol. 48, No 4, 40-47.

Bjurström, Lars (2000):

Desert Caves of Saudi Arabia, Skayife (Turkish Airlines) November 2000,
70-80; Cedar Wings (Middle East Airlines) October/November 2000, 22-31; Emirates inflight November 2000, 22-29 (in Arabic); Oryx (Qatar Airways) November/December 2000, 24-27.

Bjurström, Lars (2000):

Caving in Saudi Arabia, Ahlan Wasahlan (Saudia Airways) November 2000, 12-17.

Bramkamp, R.A. & Ramirez, L.F., (1958):

Geologic Map of the Northern Tuwayq Quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. U.S. Geol. Survey, Misc. Geol Investig. Map I-207 A, 1:500,000, Washington.

BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Paris (1977):

Al Hasa development Project, Ground Water Resources Study and Management Programme. - Unpubl. Rep., Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Riyadh.

Chapman, R.W. (1978):

Geology. - In:Al-Sayari, S.S. & J.G. Zötl (Eds): Quaternary Period in Saudi Arabia, Wien/New York (Springer): 4-18

 

Courbon, P. (1985):

Puits Sans Petrole Au Pays de L'Or Noir (Explorations en Arabie Saoudite), Holes with no oil in the Black Gold Country (Explorations in Saudi Arabia), Grottes et Gouffres 95, March, 1985, Paris (Spéleo-Club de Paris): 19-21

Dabbagh, A.E., Hötzl, H., Zötl, J.G. (1988):

Karst Features of the Arabian Platform and their Influence on Aquifers, Proceedings of the IAH 21st Congress, Karst Hydrogeology and Karst Environment Protection, V. XXI, Part I, Guilin, China, Geological Publishing House, Beijing, China, 1988: 452-460

Davis, B.L. (1983):

Voids between the Dunes. NSS News, Nov. 1983, Huntsville (National Speleological Society): 278-284

Davison, W.D. jr. (1985):

An Overview of Karst in the Sultanate of Oman - NSS Bulletin, 47 (1), Huntsville (NSS): 62

Davison, W.D. Jr. (1985):

Meeting Place of the Spirits. - Aramco World, 41 (5), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Aramco): 16-23

Davison, W.D. Jr. (1985):

The Caves of the Selma Plateau, the Sultanate of Oman - NSS Bulletin, 47 (1), Huntsville (NSS): 62

Davison, W.D. Jr. (1985):

Majlis Al Jinn Cave, Sultanate of Oman - Report PAWR (Public Authority for Resources), Oct. 1985, 17 S., Muscat: 85-20

De Jong, R.L., Yazicigil, H. & Al-Layla, R.I. (1989):

Scenario Planning for Water Resources: Saudi Arabian case study. - Water International, 14: 6-12

Dincer, T., Al-Murgrain, A. & Zimmermann, V. (1974):

Study of the Infiltration and Recharge through the Sand Dunes in Arid Zones with Special References to the Stable Isotopes and Thermonuclear Tritium - J. Hydrol, 23, Amsterdam: 79-109

 
Edgell, H. S.(1987):

                    Structural Geology of the Ma'aqala area, northeast Saudi Arabia 16pp., 14 text figs., 1 encl. Dhahran.

                     (note: deals with the stuctural control of cave systems in the Umm er Radhuma Fm., Ma'aqala area)

Edgell, H. S. (1987):

 Geological report on the Upper Tertiary strata of the Eastern Province with reference to their hydrogeology, 24pp., 6

                     text figs., Dhahran.

 

Edgell, H. S. (1987):

 Geology of Studied Areas, in 'Groundwater Resources Evaluation of Saudi Arabia, A Long Term Strategic Plan for fresh Groundwater Use', King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Press, pp. 24-77, 15 plates, Dhahran.

Edgell, H. S. (1988):

Interim report on 'Karst phenomena of the Arabian Platform and their influence on underground aquifers'.34pp., Dhahran

Edgell, H. S. (1989):

Karst in Northeastern Saudi Arabia, First Saudi Symposium on Earth Sciences, Abstracts, p. 52, Scientific,   Publishing Centre. king Abdulaziz university, Jeddah.

Edgell, H. S. (1990):

Geological Framework of Saudi Arabian Groundwater Resources, Journal of King Abdulaziz University, Earth

                       Sciences, vol.3, Special issue, pp. 267-286, 9 figs., Jeddah.

 

Edgell, H.S. (1990):

Karst in Northeastern Saudi Arabia, Journal of King Abdul Aziz U.: Earth Sci., vol. 3, Special Issue: 1st Saudi Symp. on Earth Sci, Jeddah, 1989: 81-94

Edgell, H. S. (1992):

Geological Evidence of Quaternary Climate Change and Dune Development in Saudi Arabia, 29th International

                      Geological Congress, Abstracts, vol.2, p.410, Kyoto.

                      (deals with radioisotope dating of paleokarst features as a basis for dating pluvial intervals)

Edgell, H.S. (1993):

Karst and Water Resources in The Hyperarid Areas of Northeastern Saudi Arabia, Proceedings of Articles of International Karst Symposium (Vol I) Shiraz, Iran: 309-326

Edgell, H. S. (1997):
 Aquifers of Saudi Arabia and their Geological Framework, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 22, no.1C, Water Resources in the Arabian Peninsula. Part 1. pp.3-31. textfigures 1-9, King Fahd University of Petrloeum and Minerals Press, Dhahran. (includes comments on karst in the Umm er Radhuma and Dam formations)

Fleitmann, D., Matter, A., Pint, J.J., and Al-Shanti, M.A. (2004):

The speleothem record of climate change in Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2004-8, 40 p., 24 figs., 8 tables, 1 app.

Forti, P. (2005):

Genetic processes of cave minerals in volcanic environments: An Overview. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 67, no. 1, p. 3-13.

Forti, P., Pint, J.J., Al-Shanti, M.A., Al-Juaid, A.J., Al-Amoudi, S.A., and  Pint, S.I., 2003. 

The development of tourist caves in the Kingdom of Saudi  Arabia, Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2003-6, 32 p., 51  figs. 1 table, 2 apps.

Fuchs, G. (1994):

Archäologische Prospektion am Rande der Dahna (Emirat Ma'aqala, Ostprovinz, Saudi-Arabien), Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für klassische Archäologie der Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz: 63-73

Ganter, J. (1998):

Caving on the Selmeh Plateau, Sultanate of Oman - NSS News, April 1998: 100-108

Ganter, J.H., Davison, W. D. Jr. (1989):

Desert Mountain Karst of the Middle East, with Emphasis on the Selmeh Plateau, Sultanate of Oman. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, GSA Abstracts with Programs 21:6, October 1989.

GDC - Groundwater Development Consultants (1980):

Umm er Radhuma Study. Draft Final Report, Vol 106, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Riyadh (Unpubl. Rep.)

Gregory, A.E. (2001):

"Bold Cavers Plumb Inky Depths of Bat'n Sabsab". Arabian Sun Vol. LVI, No. 27,  July 11, 2001:  pp. 1, 5;  (3 photos)
 http://prd.aramco.com.sa/media_center/publications/sun_pdfs/SUN27_07112001.pdf  

Gregory, A.E. (2001):

"Discovery Trip inside Bat'n Sabsab".  Al Qafilah al Usbiyyah, July 17, 2001: p. 3; (4 photos)
 http://prd.aramco.com.sa/media_center/publications/caravan_pdfs/usbuiyyah_07172001.pdf

Gregory, A.E. (2001):

"DGS Caving Field Trip".  The Oil Drop (published by Dhahran Geoscience Society), Vol. 13, Issue 7, Sept. 2001:  pp. 3-4  (5 photos)
 http://www.dgsonline.org/     (Sept. 2001 issue)

Halliday, W.R., Kosa, A. Pint, J.  and Salama-Mohamed, A.  (2003):

Karst in the Desert:  karsts and caves of Egypt, northern Libya and Saudi Arabia (abstract).  Proceedings, International Conference on Karst Hydrogeology and Ecosystems, Bowling Green, KY, USA, June 3-6, 2003, p. 29-30.


Halliday, William R.  (2004):

Caves in History:  the ancient Mediterranean.  pp. 207-209 in Gunn, John, editor.  2004.  Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science.  Fitzroy Dearborn, NY and London.  (Mohamed's cave)

Holm, D.A. (1960):

Desert geomorphology in the Arabian peninsula. Science 132:1369-1379.
 

Hötzl, H., Job, C., Zötl, J.G. (1977):

Saudi Arabian: Wann ist das Grundwasser erschöpft. - Umschau, 77, Frankfurt: 518-519.

Hötzl, H., Sheikh, K.S. & Zötl, J. (1988):

Geomorphologic Map of Ma'aqala Area, Province of Al Hasa, Saudi Arabia, Dhahran-Graz-Karlsruhe, 1:50,000.

Hötzl, H., Wohnlich, S., Zötl, J.G. & Benischke R. (1993):

Verkarstung und Grundwasser im As Summan Plateau (Saudi Arabien), Karstification and Groundwater in the As Summan Plateau (Saudi Arabia), Steirische Beiträge Zur Hydrogeologie, 44: 5-157

Hötzl, H., Job, C., Moser, H., Rauert, W., Stichler, W., Zötl, J.G. (1980):

Isotope Methods as a Tool for Quaternary Studies in Saudi Arabia, Arid-zone Hydrology: Investigations with Isotope Techniques, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, IAEA-AG-158/16: 215-235

Hussain, M., Al Khalifa, F., and Khandaker, N.I., (2005):

 The Jabal Al Qarah caves of the Hofuf area, northeastern Saudi Arabia: A geological investigation: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies (scheduled for publication in 2006)

Hussain, M., Khandaker, N.I., and Al-Khalifa, F., (2004):

 Neogene Hofuf Formation hosted Jabal Al Qarah caves: Structural and depositional constraints, eastern Saudi Arabia. Annual Conference, Geological Society of America; Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, p.235

Hussain, M., Al-Khalefah, F., Raza, M.J., (2001):

Geology of Jabal Al-Qarah Caves, Al-Hasa, Northeast Saudi Arabia: Proceedings, The First Saudi Science Conference, April 9-11, 2001, Dhahran, pp. 259-274

Ibarra, S., Fotos: Pint, J. (1996):

Maravillas Bajo las Dunas del Desierto Dahna, Geomundo, Diciembre de 1996, Mexico City, Mexico: 561-567

Irtem, O., Wasim, A. (1987):

Karstphenomena of the Arabian Shield Platform and their Influence on Underground Aquifers. Stratigraphy and Sedimentology, 31 pp, 22 figs., Dhahran.

Jado, A.R. and Johnson, D.H. (1983):

Solution caverns in the Dammam dome, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 8:69-73.

Jado, A.R. & Zötl, J.G.(1984):

Quaternary Period in Saudi Arabia. Volume 2: Sedimentological, Hydrogeological, Hydrochemical, Geomorphological, Geochronological and Climatological Investigations in Western Saudi Arabia - XII, 361 S., Vienna/New York (Springer).

Jennings, M.C. (2008):

Birds in Caves in the Phoenix, Number 24, January, 2008, pp. 14-15

Kempe, S., Al-Malabeh, A. & Henschel, H.V. (2004):

Lava caves of Jordan. 11th International Symposium on Volcanospeleology, 12-17 May, Azores, Abstract Volume.
 

Monkhouse, C.J. (2004):

Father of Fear - Caving: Thrills, chills and telltale rock. Dimensions Magazine, Summer 2004, 12-23

MacDonnell, Judy (1999):

Showcase in the Desert. Ahlan Wasahlan, August, 1999: 34-37

McClure, H.A. (1976):

Radiocarbonchronology of Late Quaternary Lakes in the Arabian Desert - Nature, 263, London: 755-756.

Middleton, A. (1985):

Oman 85. Stafford Speleo Journal, 1 (May), 1-4, Stafford, U.K.

Middleton, J.R. (1978):

Some Notes on the World Caving Scene, Asia. Caves & Caving, No.1 (Aug. 1978), 2-11, Bridgwater, UK (Brit. Cave Res. Assoc).

Moser, H. (1980):

Isotopes as a tool for Investigating Al Qatif and Al Hasa Water Samples. Arid zone Hydrology: investigations with Isotope Techniques, Vienna (IAEA).

Myers, R. (1984):

In search of caves: No. 1. Saudi Arabia - Craven Pothole Club Journal, 6 (5-6), Skipton, U.K.: 226-228.

Naimi, A.I. (1965):

The Groundwater of Northeastern Saudi Arabia - Fifth Arab. Petroleum Congress, March, Cairo: 16-23.

Peters, D., Pint, J., Kremla, N. (1990):

Karst Landforms in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, NSS Bulletin, June, 1990: 21-32

Pieke, J.G. (1985):

Ground Water Resources and Development in the central region of the Arabian Gulf. IAH- Memoires of the 18th congress: Hydrogeology in the service of Man, 18/2, Cambridge (IAHS): 46-55.

Pint, J., Peters, D. (1985):

The Caves of Ma'aqala, NSS News, Sept. 1985: 227-282

Pint, J. (1995):

The Treasures of Dahl Sultan, Ahlan Wasahlan, October, 1995: 16-19

Pint, J. (1995):

The Caves of Ma'aqala, The Desert Rambler (Riyadh Natural History Society), January 1995; Into the Teapot, March 1995

Pint, J. (1996):

The Mystery of the Whistling Teapot, Ahlan Wasahlan, October, 1996: 32-35

Pint, J. (1997):

Return to the Desert Caves of Saudi Arabia, NSS News, Nov. 1997: 329-335

Pint, J. (1998):

Caves beneath Dunes, The Discovery of Dahl Sultan, Risalat Al-Ma'ahad 110/111, Ramadan/Shawal 1418 - Jan/Feb. 1998.

Pint, J. (1998):

The Secrets of Dahl Shawiah, Ahlan Wasahlan, October, 1998: 12-14

Pint, J. (1998):

Dharb Al-Najem, A Visit to Saudi Arabia's Deepest Pit, Risalat Al-Ma'ahad 118/119/120, Jumada I/Jumada II/Rajab 1419 - Sept./Oct. 1998.

Pint, J. , Bjurström, L. (2000):

Saudi Arabia's Desert Caves, Aramco World, March/April 2000, Vol 51, No 2: 26-38

Pint, J. (2000):

The Desert Cave Journal 1998-2000, NSS News, October 2000, Vol 58, Number 10: 276-281.

Pint, J. (2001):

Lava Tube Caves in Arabia, UIS Commission on Volcanic Caves Newsletter #30, June 2001: 10-12.

Pint, J., Al-Shanti, M.A., Al-Juaid, A.J., and  Al-Amoudi, S.A., (2002):

Preliminary survey for caves suitable for tourism in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: As-Sulb plateau -- Kahf al Rutuwbah and B32 cave: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2002-10, 28 p., 43 figs..

Pint, J. (2003):

The Desert Caves of Saudi Arabia: Stacey International, London, ISBN: 1 900988 48 8, 120 pp.

Pint, J. (2003):

Saudi Arabia's Underground Geologists, Ahlan Wasahlan (Saudi Arabian Airlines) March 2003, 6-10.

Pint, J., Al-Shanti, M.A., Al-Juaid, A.J., Al-Amoudi, S.A., and Forti, P. , with the collaboration of Akbar, R., Vincent, P., Kempe, S.,  Boston, P.,  Kattan, F.H., Galli, E., Rossi, A., and Pint, S. (2005):

Ghar al Hibashi, Harrat Nawasif/Al Buqum, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2004-12, 68 p. 43 figs, 1 table., 2 apps., 1 plate.

Pint, J. and Pint, S. (2004): 

The Caves of 'Ar 'Ar, NSS NEWS, March 2004, pp. 68-73

Pint, J. and Pint, S., (2005): 

Searching for Lava Tubes in Arabia, NSS NEWS, May 2005, pp. 9-15

Pint, J. (2006):

Vulcanospeleology in Saudi Arabia, Acta Carsologica, 35/1, Ljubljana 2006, pp. 107-109.

Pint, J. (2008):

  • Lava Tubes of Harrat Kishb, Saudi Arabia: Proceedings of the X, XI, and XII International Symposia on Vulcanospeleology, edited by Ramón Espinasa and John Pint, AMCS,Austin, 2008,  pp. 29-34

 

  • Rare Cave Minerals and Features of Hibashi Cave, Saudi Arabia: : Proceedings of the X, XI, and XII International Symposia on Vulcanospeleology, edited by Ramón Espinasa and John Pint, AMCS,Austin, 2008,  pp 89-97

 

  • Prospects for Lava-cave Studies in Harrat Khaybar, Saudi Arabia: Proceedings of the X, XI, and XII International Symposia on Vulcanospeleology, edited by Ramón Espinasa and John Pint, AMCS,Austin, 2008, pp. 197-200

Pint, John (2012):

Underground in Arabia, Selwa Press, ISBN 978-0-9701157-5-1, 154 pages

Powers, R.W., Ramirez, L.F., Redmond, C.D. & Elberg, E.L. (1966):

Geology of the Arabian Peninsula - Sedimentary geology of Saudi Arabia - U.S. Geol. Survey prof. Paper 560D, 147S.

Roobol, M.J., Pint, J.J., Al-Shanti, M.A., Al-Juaid, A.J., Al-Amoudi, S.A. and Pint, S., with the collaboration of Al-Eisa, A.M., Allam, F., Al-Sulaimani, G.S., and Banakhar, A.S., (2002):

Preliminary survey for lava-tube caves on Harrat Kishb, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File report SGS-OF-2002-3, 35 p., 41 figs., 1 table, 4 apps., 2 plates.

Sadiq, A.M. and Nasir, S.J. (2002):

Middle Pleistocene karst evolution in the State of Qatar, Arabian Gulf. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 64(2): 132-139.

Saner, S.,  Al-Hinai, K. and Perincek, D. (2005):

Surface expressions of the Ghawar structure, Saudi Arabia. The Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia. Marine and Petroleum Geology Volume 22, Issue 5 , May 2005, Pages 657-670

Saudi Cave Unit (2007):

Maps of caves surveyed by Saudi Geological Survey, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey Data-File Report SGS-DF-2005-14, 59 p, 58 figs.

SGS Caving Project Team (2007):

Field trip reports of the Saudi Geological Survey Cave Unit, 2000-2004, arranged by regions: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2007-4, 66 p, 139 figs.

Steineke, M., Harris, T.F., Parsons, K.R. & Berg, E.L. (1958):

Geologic map of the Western Persian Gulf Quadrangle: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - USGS, Misc. Geol. Investig., Map I-208A, 1:50,000, Washington.

Wakuti (1971):

Final Report of Water Wells, Faisal Settlement Project, Haradh - Unpub. Rep., Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Riyadh.

Waltham, A.C., Brown, R. D. & Middleton, C. (1985):

Karst and Caves in the Jabal Akhdar, Oman. Cave Science, Vol 12, No 3 (Sept. 1985), Bridgwater, UK (Brit. Cave Res Assoc): 69-79.

Zötl, J., (1989):

Paleokarst as an Important Hydrogeological Factor; Paleokarst and underground water in arid regions; Paleokarst, A Systematic and Regional Review, Bosak, Pavel et al, editors, Elsevier and Academia, Amsterdam and Praha, 1989: 503-506